This is part of a chapter by chapter review of THE ECOLOGY OF FREEDOM: The emergence and dissolution of hierarchy by Murray Bookchin (1982, 1991, 2005)
chapter one: the concept of social ecology.
The Ecology of Freedom begins with an account of Norse mythology and how the Vikings saw the world’s precarious balance. There was Asgaard, the celestial domain of the gods above; Midgard, where human beings lived on the earth; and Niffleheim, the dark, icy domain of giants, dwarves and the dead.
These domains were linked by the great World Tree, which was sustained by a magic fountain that infused it continually with life. Odin, the god of wisdom, and his mighty son Thor kept the great wolf Fenris, and the great serpent of Midgard and the hostile giants at bay. They enforced the keeping of oaths and treaties and invited the bravest of warriors to dine with them…
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